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Types and Functions of Electrodes

Mar. 13, 2020

Today, Graphite Electrode Supplier will introduce the types, functions and uses of electrodes.


Carbon electrodes can be divided into carbon electrodes, graphite electrodes and self-baked electrodes according to their uses and manufacturing processes.


1. The carbon electrode is made of low-ash anthracite, metallurgical coke, pitch coke and petroleum coke. It is composed of a certain proportion and particle size. When mixing, participate in the binder asphalt and tar. Stir at an appropriate temperature to limit the formation , And finally obtained by slow baking in a baking furnace. Can be divided into four types of natural graphite electrodes, artificial graphite electrodes, carbon electrodes and special carbon electrodes.


2. Graphite Electrode uses petroleum coke and pitch coke as raw materials to make carbon electrodes, and then puts them into a graphitization resistance furnace with a temperature of 2273 ~ 2773K. Graphite is used to make graphite electrodes. Graphite electrodes are divided into the following .

The general power graphite electrode promises to use a graphite electrode with a current density lower than 17A / cm2, which is mainly used for general power electric furnaces such as steel making, silicon making, and yellow phosphorus making.

Anti-oxidation coating The surface of the graphite electrode is coated with a protective layer (graphite electrode antioxidant) that can conduct electricity and resist high temperature oxidation, reducing the electrode cost (19% ~ 50%) during steelmaking, and extending the service life of the electrode (22% ~ 60%), reducing the power consumption of the electrode.

HP Graphite Electrode uses graphite electrodes with a current density of 18 ~ 25A / cm2, which is mainly used in high-power electric arc furnaces for steelmaking.

Ultra-high power graphite electrodes promise to use graphite electrodes with current density greater than 25A / cm2. Primarily used in ultra-high power steelmaking arc furnaces.


HP Graphite Electrode


HP Graphite Electrode


3. Self-baking electrodes use anthracite, coke, pitch and tar as raw materials, and make electrode paste at a certain temperature, and then fill the electrode paste into the electrode shell already installed on the electric furnace (as shown in Figure 1). During the production process, sintering and coking are performed by relying on the Joule heat generated when the current passes and the heat conducted in the furnace. This type of electrode can be used continuously, and the junction is formed while using the electrode, and it can be fired into a large diameter. The self-baked electrode is not only simple in process, but also low in cost, so it is widely used in the production of ferroalloys.


The electrode shall have the following physical and chemical characteristics:

Good conductivity and small resistivity to reduce the loss of electrical energy, reduce the short-circuit voltage drop, improve the useful voltage to improve the power of the molten pool; the melting point should be high; the thermal expansion coefficient should be small, when the temperature changes dramatically, it is not easy to deform The internal stress caused by temperature changes causes small cracks to increase resistance; it must have sufficient mechanical strength at high temperatures; impurities must be low, and impurities do not contaminate the type of smelting.


Self-baked electrodes are widely used in ferroalloy smelting, refining ferrosilicon, silicon-chromium alloy, manganese-silicon alloy, high-carbon ferromanganese, high-carbon ferrochrome, medium-low carbon ferromanganese, medium-low carbon ferrochrome, silicon-calcium alloy, and tungsten iron Wait. The self-baked electrode is easy to increase the carbon of the produced alloy, and the iron belt enters the carbon to produce iron alloy and pure metal containing very low carbon. If carbon chromium iron, industrial silicon and metallic manganese should be used, carbon electrodes or graphite electrodes should be used.

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