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Graphite Electrode Consumption Mechanism

Jun. 17, 2020

The consumption of graphite electrodes in electric furnace steelmaking is mainly related to the quality of the electrode itself, but also to the steelmaking furnace conditions (such as new and old furnaces, whether there are mechanical failures, whether continuous production, etc.) and steelmaking operations (such as steel smelting, blowing Oxygen time, charge conditions, etc.) are very relevant. Only the consumption of graphite electrode itself is discussed here, and its consumption mechanism has the following aspects:

1. End consumption

Including the sublimation of graphite material caused by arc high temperature and the loss of chemical reaction between the electrode end and molten steel and slag. The high-temperature sublimation rate of the end part mainly depends on the current density passing through the electrode, and it is related to the diameter of the electrode side after oxidation. The end consumption is also related to whether the electrode is inserted into the molten steel to increase carbon.

Graphite Electrode

2. Lateral oxidation

The chemical composition of the electrode is carbon. Under certain conditions, carbon will oxidize with air, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. The amount of oxidation on the side of the electrode is related to the unit oxidation rate and the exposed area. In general, the amount of oxidation on the electrode side accounts for about 50% of the total electrode consumption. In recent years, in order to increase the smelting speed of electric furnaces, the frequency of oxygen blowing operations has been increased, resulting in increased oxidation losses of the electrodes. Observing the redness of the electrode trunk and the taper at the lower end during the steelmaking process is an intuitive way to measure the electrode's antioxidant capacity.

3. Stump loss

When the electrode is used continuously to the connection between the upper and lower electrodes, a small section of the electrode or joint (ie, the residue) is detached due to the thinning of the body or the penetration of cracks. The size of the stump loss is related to the shape of the joint, the internal structure of the electrode, the vibration, and the impact of the electrode column.

4. Surface peeling and dropping

In the smelting process, it is quenched and heated rapidly, resulting in poor thermal shock resistance of the electrode itself.

5. Electrode broken

Including the broken electrode body and broken connector. The electrode breakage is related to the quality and processing coordination of the graphite electrode and the joint, as well as to the steelmaking operation. The cause is often the focus of controversy between the steel mill and the electrode manufacturer.

The above information is provided by the graphite electrode supplier.


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